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Text 2William Shakespeare described old age as" second childishness"-no teeth, no eyes, no

Text 2

William Shakespeare described old age as" second childishness"-no teeth, no eyes, no taste. In the case of taste he may, musically speaking, have been more perceptive than he realised. A paper in Neurology by Giovanni Frisoni and his colleagues at the National Centre for Research and Care of Alzheimers's Disease in Italy, shows that frontotemporal dementia can affect musical desires in ways that suggest a regression ,if not to infancy,then at least to a patient's teens.

Frontotemporal dementia, a disease usually found with old people, is caused, as its name suggests,by damage to the front and sides of the brain. These regions are concerned with speech, and with such"higher"functions as abstract thinking and judgment.

Two of such patients intrigued Dr Frisoni. One was a 68-year-old lawyer, the other a 73-year- old housewife. Both had undamaged memories, but displayed the sorts of defect associated with frontotemporal dementia-a diagnosis that was confrrmed by brain scanning.

About two years after he was first diagnosed, the lawyer, once a classical music lover who re-ferred to pop music as"mere noise" , started listening to the Italian pop band "883". As his command of language and his emotional attachments to friends and family deteriorated, he continued to listen to the band at full volume for many hours a day. The housewife had not even had the lawyer's love of classical music, having never enjoyed music of any sort in the past. But about a year after her diagnosis she became very interested in the songs that her ll-year-old granddaughter was listen ing to.

This kind of change in musical taste was not seen in any of the Alzheimer's patients, and thus appears to be specific to those with frontotemporal dementia. And other studies have remarked on how frontotemporal-dementia patients sometimes gain new talents. Five sufferers who developed artistic abilities are known. And in another case, one woman with the disease suddenly started composing and singing country and western songs.

Dr Frisoni speculates that the illness is causing people to develop a new attitude towards novel experiences, Previous studies of novelty-seeking behaviour suggest that it is managed by the brain'sright frontal lobe. A predominance of the right over the left frontal lobe, caused by damage to the

latter,might thus lead to a quest for new experience. Alternatively, the damage may have affected

some specific nervous system that is needed to appreciate certain kinds of music. Whether that is a

gain or a loss is a different matter. As Dr Frisoni puts it in his article, there is no accounting for


46. The writer quotes Shakespeare mainly to

[A] praise the keen perception of the great English writer.

[B] support Dr. Frisoni 's theory about a disease.

[C] start the discussion on a brain disease.

[D] show the long history of the disease.

更多“Text 2William Shakespeare described old age as" second childishness"-no teeth, no eyes, no”相关的问题


The word "regression" in the lst paragraph is best replaced by[ A] backward movement.[
The word "regression" in the lst paragraph is best replaced by

[ A] backward movement.

[ B] uncontrolled inclination.

[ C] rapid advancement.

[ D] unexpected restoration.



After contracting frontotemporal dementia, the 68-year-old lawyer[ A] became more depe
After contracting frontotemporal dementia, the 68-year-old lawyer

[ A] became more dependent on'his family.

[ B] grew fond of classical music.

[ C] recovered from language incompetence.

[ D] enjoyed loud Italian popular music.



Frontotemporal dementia is a disease[ A] identified with loss of memory.[ B] causing d
Frontotemporal dementia is a disease

[ A] identified with loss of memory.

[ B] causing damage to certain parts of the brain.

[ C] whose patients may develop new talents.

[ D] whose symptoms are similar to those of Alzheimer's patients.



Dr Frisoni attributed the patients' changing music taste to[A] man's desire to seek no
Dr Frisoni attributed the patients' changing music taste to

[A] man's desire to seek novel experience.

[B] the damage to the left part of the brain.

[C] the shift of predominance from the right lobe to the left.

[D] the weakening of some part of the nervous system.



Text 3Who's to blame? The trail of responsibility goes beyond poor maintenance of British
Text 3

Who's to blame? The trail of responsibility goes beyond poor maintenance of British railways, say industry critics. Stingy governments-both Labor and Tory-have cut down on investments in trains and rails.ln the mid-1990s a Conservative government pushed through the sale of the entire subsidy-guzzling rail network. Operating franchises were parceled out among private comparues and a separate firm,Railtrack, was awarded ownership of the tracks and stations. In the future, the theory ran back then, the private sector could pay for any improvements-with a little help from the state-and take the blame for any failings.

Today surveys show that travelers believe privatization is one of the reasons for the railways 's failures. They ask whether the pursuit of profits is compatible with guaranteeing safety. Worse, splitting the network between companies has made coordination nearly impossible. "The railway was tom apart at privatization and the structure that was put in place was. . . designed, if we are honest, to maximize the proceeds to the Treasury," said Railtrack boss Gerald Corbett before resigning last month in the wake of the Hatfield crash.

Generally, the contrasts with mainland Europe are stark. Over the past few decades the Germans, French and Italians have invested 50 percent more than the British in transportation infrastructure. As a result, a web of high-speed trains now crisscross the Continent, funded by governments willing to commit state funds to major capital projects. Spain is currently planning l,000 miles of new high- speed track.ln France superfast trains already shuttle between all major cities, often on dedicated lines. And in Britain? When the Eurostar trains that link Paris, London and Brussels emerge from the Channel Tunnel onto British soil and join the crowded local network, they must slow down from 186 mph to a maximum of 100 mph-and they usually have to go even slower.

For once, the government is listening. After all, commuters are voters, too. In a pre-vote spending spree, the govemment has committed itself to huge investment in transportation, as well as education and the public health service. Over the next 10 years, the railways should get an extra £60 billion, partly through higher subsidies to the private companies. As Blair ackoowledged last month, " Britain has been underinvested in and investment is central to Britain's future. " You don't have to tell the 3 million passengers who use the railways every day. Last week trains to Darlington were an hour late-and crawling at Locomotion No.l speeds.

51. In the first paragraph, the author tries to

[ A] trace the tragedy to its defective origin.

[ B] remind people of Britain's glonous past.

[ C] explain the failure of Britain's rail network.

[ D] call for impartiality in assessing the situation.



Travelers now believe that the root cause for failures of British railway is[A] its st
Travelers now believe that the root cause for failures of British railway is

[A] its structural design.

[B] the pursuit of profit.

[C] its inefficient network.

[D] the lack of safety guarantees.



According to Gerald Corbett, British railway is structured[A] for the benefit of commu
According to Gerald Corbett, British railway is structured

[A] for the benefit of commuters.

[B] to the advantage of the government.

[C] for the effect of better coordination.

[ D] as a replacement of the private system.



Comparing British railway with those of Europe, the author thinks[A] trains in Britain
Comparing British railway with those of Europe, the author thinks

[A] trains in Britain can run at 100 mph at least.

[B] Britain should build more express lines.

[ C] rails in Britain need further privatization.

[D] British railway is left a long way behind.



What does the author think of Blair's acknowledgement?[ A] It's too late to improve th
What does the author think of Blair's acknowledgement?

[ A] It's too late to improve the situation quickly enough.

[ B ] It's a welcomed declaration of commitment.

[ C] Blair should preach it to other travelers.

[ D] Empty words can't solve the problem.



Text 4No man has been more harshly judged than Machiavelli, especially in the two centurie
Text 4

No man has been more harshly judged than Machiavelli, especially in the two centuries follow-ing his death. But he has since found many able champions and the tide has turned. The prince has been termed a manual for tyrants, the effect of which has been most harmful. But were Machiavelli's doctrines really new? Did he discover them? He merely had the frankness and cour- age to write down what everybody was thinking and what everybody knew. He merely gives us the impressions he had received from a long and intimate intercourse with princes and the affairs of state. It was Lord Bacon who said that Machiavelli tells us what princes do, not what they ought to do. When Machiavelli takes Caesar Borgia as a model, he does not praise him as a hero at all, but merely as a prince who was capable of attaining the end in view. The life of the state was the prima- ry object. It must be maintained. And Machiavelli has laid down the principles, based upon his stud-y and wide experience, by which this may be accomplished. He wrote from the view-point of the politician-not of the moralist. What is good politics may be bad morals, and in fact, by a strange fatality, where morals and politics clash, the latter generally gets the upper hand. And will anyone contend that the principles set forth by Machiavelli in his Prince or his Discourses have entirely per- ished from the earth? Has diplomacy been entirely stripped of fraud and duplicity? Let anyone read the famous eighteenth chapter of The Prince:"ln what Manner Princes should Keep their Faith,"and he will be convinced that what was true nearly four hundred years ago, is quite as true today.

Of the remaining works of Machiavelli the most important is the History of Florence written be-

tween 1521 and 1525, and dedicated to Clement VII. This book is merely a rapid review of the Middle

Ages, and as part of it the history of Florence. Machiavelli's method has been criticized for adhering

at times too closely to the chroniclers of his time, and at others rejecting their testimony without ap-

parent reason, while in its details the authority of his History is often questionable.lt is the straightfor-

ward, logical narrative, which always holds the interest of the reader, that is the greatest charm of

the History.

56. It can be inferred from the beginning of the text that

[ A] many people used to think highly of Machiavelli.

[ B] Machiavelli had been very influential among the rulers.

[ C] Machiavelli was widely read among his contemporaries.

[ D] Machiavelli has been a target of criticism throughout history.

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