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第50题:We preferred to postpone the meeting ________ it without the presence of our president.A) rather than hold

B) than to hold

C) rather than held

D) to holding







When he is confronted with a ________, he usually makes an arbitrary decision by throwing a coin.






Paper--More than Meets the EyeA) We are surrounded by so much paper and card that it is ea
Paper--More than Meets the Eye

A) We are surrounded by so much paper and card that it is easy to forget just how complex it is. There are many varieties and grades of paper materials, and whilst it is fairly easy to spot the varieties, it is far more difficult to spot the grades.

B) It needs to be understood that most paper and card is manufactured for a specific purpose, so that whilst the corn-flake packet may look smart, it is clearly not something destined for the archives. It is made to look good, but only needs a limited life span. It is also much cheaper to manufacture than high grade card.

C) Paper can be made from an almost endless variety of cellulose-based material which will include many woods, cottons and grasses or which papyrus is an example and from where we get the word "paper". Many of these are very specialized, but the preponderance of paper making has been from soft wood and cotton or rags, with the bulk being wood-based.

Paper from Wood

D) In order to make wood into paper it needs to be broken down into fine strands. Firstly by powerful machinery and then boiled with strong alkalies such as caustic soda, until a fine pulp of cellulose fibers is produced. It is from this pulp that the final product is made, relying on the bonding together of the cellulose into layers. That, in a very small nutshell, is the essence of paper making from wood. However, the reality is rather more complicated. In order to give us our white paper and card, the makers will add bleach and other materials such as china clay and additional chemicals.

E) A further problem with wood is that it contains a material that is not cellulose. Something called lignin. This is essential for the tree since it holds the cellulose fibres together, but if it is incorporated into the manufactured paper it presents archivists with a problem. Lignin eventually breaks down and releases acid products into the paper. This will weaken the bond between the cellulose fibers and the paper will become brittle and look rather brown and careworn. We have all seen this in old newspapers and cheap paperback books. It has been estimated that most paper back books will have a life of not greater than fifty years. Not what we need for our archives.

F) Since the lignin can be removed from the paper pulp during manufacture, the obvious question is "why is it left in the paper?" The answer lies in the fact that lignin makes up a considerable part of the tree. By leaving the lignin in the pulp a papermaker can increase his paper yield from a tree to some 95%. Removing it means a yield of only 35%. It is clearly uneconomic to remove the lignin for many paper and card applications.

G) It also means, of course, that lignin-free paper is going to be more expensive, but that is nevertheless what the archivist must look for in his supplies. There is no point whatsoever in carefully placing our valuable artifacts in paper or card that is going to hasten

their demise. Acid is particularly harmful to photographic materials, causing them to fade and is some cases simply vanish!

H) So, how do we tell a piece of suitable paper or card from one that is unsuitable? You cannot do it by simply looking, and rather disappointingly, you cannot always rely on the label. "Acid-free" might be true inasmuch as a test on the paper may indicate that it is a neutral material at this time. But lignin can take years before it starts the inevitable process of breaking down, and in the right conditions it will speed up enormously.

I) Added to this, as I have indicated earlier, paper may also contain other materials added during manufacture such as bleach, china clay, chemical whiteners and size. This looks like a bleak picture, and it would be but for the fact that there are suppliers who will guarantee the material that they sell. If you want to be absolutely sure that you are storing in, or printing on, the correct material then this is probably the only way.

J) Incidentally, acids can migrate from material to material. Lining old shoe boxes with good quality acid-free paper will do little to guard the contents. The acid will get there in the end.

Paper from Rag

K) Paper is also commonly made from cotton and rag waste. This has the advantage of being lignin-free, but because there is much less cotton and rag than trees, it also tends to be much more expensive than wood pulp paper. You will still need to purchase from a reliable source though, since even rag paper and card can contain undesirable additives.

L) A reliable source for quality rag papers is a recognized art stockiest. Many water color artists insist on using only fine quality rag paper and board.

M) The main lesson to learn from this information is that you cannot rely on purchasing archival materials from the high street. The only safe solution is to purchase from specialist suppliers. It may cost rather more, but in the end you will know that your important and valuable data and images have the best home possible.

1. The corn-flake packet is cheaper than high grade card.

2. There are a lot of materials which can be used for making paper, but the superiority ones are soft wood, cotton and rags.

3. During the whole manufacturing process, the final product is made from a pulp of cellulose fibres.

4. In order to make white paper and card, the makers will add bleach.

5. Liguin is essential for the tree but it will make paper easy to break.

6. Many paper producers will preserve lignin during manufacture, because leaving the lignin will make more paper from a tree.

7. Acid is particularly harmful to photographic materials.

8. If the lignin is removed from the paper, the paper will be more expensive.

9. Although free of lignin, paper made from cotton and rag waste can also cost more money than wood pulp paper because there is much less cotton and rag than trees.

10. What we can learn from "Paper from Rag" is that you had better buy archival materials from specialist suppliers.



根据以下资料,回答11~15题。 By saying "relatively few of us live along fault lines" (Line
根据以下资料,回答11~15题。By saying "relatively few of us live along fault lines" (Line 2, Para.1), the author means that most of us ________ A) make mistakes when facing emergencies B) can deal with emergencies in a proper way C) are seldom bothered by massive earthquakes D) hardly know what to do in an earthquake



The author of the report ______ (对医院的问题非常了解)because he has been working there fo
The author of the report ______ (对医院的问题非常了解)because he has been working there for many years.



The earthquake left thousands of people _________________________ (急需医疗照顾).
The earthquake left thousands of people _________________________ (急需医疗照顾).



根据以下资料,回答6~10题。 The coffee analyzer developed by researchers is most probably i
根据以下资料,回答6~10题。The coffee analyzer developed by researchers is most probably intended for __ A) consumers B) cafeterias C) coffee plantations D) coffee wholesalers



How to Make Attractive and Effective PowerPoint PresentationsA) Microsoft PowerPoint has d
How to Make Attractive and Effective PowerPoint Presentations

A) Microsoft PowerPoint has dramatically changed the way in which academic and business presentations are made. This article outlines few tips on making more effective and attractive PowerPoint presentations.

The Text

B) Keep the wording clear and simple. Use active, visual language. Cut unnecessary words—a good rule of thumb is to cut paragraphs down to sentences, sentences into phrases, and phrases into key words.Limit the number of words and lines per slide. Try the Rule of Five-five words per line, five lines per slide. If too much text appears on one slide, use the AutoFit feature to split it between two slides. Click within the placeholder to display the AutoFit Options button (its symbol is two horizontal lines with arrows above and below), then click on the button and choose Split Text between Two Slides from the submenu.

C) Font size for titles should be at least 36 to 40, while the text body should not be smaller than 24.Use only two font styles per slide—one for the title and the other for the text. Choose two fonts that visually contrast with each other. Garamond Medium Condensed and Impact are good for titles, while Garamond or Tempus Sans can be used for the text body.

D) Embed the fonts in your presentation, if you are not sure whether the fonts used in the presentation are present in the computer that will be used for the presentation. To embed the fonts:(1) On the File menu, click Save As.(2) On the toolbar, click Tools, click Save Options, select the Embed TrueType Fonts check box, and then select Embed characters in use only.

E) Use colors sparingly; two to three at most. You may use one color for all the titles and another for the text body. Be consistent from slide to slide. Choose a font color that contrasts well with the background.

F) Capitalizing the first letter of each word is good for the title of slides and suggests a more formal situation than having just the first letter of the first word capitalized. In bullet point lines, capitalize the first word and no other words unless they normally appear capped. Upper and lower case lettering is more readable than all capital letters. Moreover, current styles indicate that using all capital letters means you are shouting. If you have text that is in the wrong case, select the text, and then click Shift+F3 until it changes to the case style. that you like. Clicking Shift+F3 toggles the text case between ALL CAPS, lower case, and Initial Capital styles.

G) Use bold or italic typeface for emphasis. Avoid underlining, it clutters up the presentation.Don’t center bulleted lists or text. It is confusing to read. Left align unless you have a good reason not to. Run “spell check” on your show when finished.

The Background

H) Keep the background consistent. Simple, light textured backgrounds work well. Complicated textures make the content hard to read. If you are planning to use many clips in your slides, select a white background. If the venue of your presentation is not adequately light-proof, select a dark-colored background and use any light color for text. Minimize the use of “bells and whistles” such as sound effects, “flying words” and multiple transitions. Don’t use re d in any fonts or backgrounds. It is an emotionally overwhelming color that is difficult to see and read.

The Clips

I) Animations are best used subtly; too much flash and motion can distract and annoy viewers. Do not rely too heavily on those images that were originally loaded on your computer with the rest of Office. You can easily find appropriate clips on any topic through Google Images. While searching for images, do not use long search phrases as is usually done while searching the web-use specific words.

J) When importing pictures, make sure that they are smaller than two megabytes and are in a.jpg format. Larger files can slow down your show. Keep graphs, charts and diagrams simple,if possible. Use bar graphs and pie charts instead of tables of data. The audience can then immediately pick up the relationships.

The Presentation

K) If you want your presentation to directly open in the slide show view, save it as a slide show file using the following steps. Open the presentation you want to save as a slide show. On the File menu, click Save As. In the Save as type list, click PowerPoint Show. Your slide show file will be saved with a ppt file extension. When you double-click on this file, it will automatically start your presentation in slide show view. When you’re done, PowerPoint automatically closes and you return to the desktop. If you want to edit the slide show file, you can always open it from PowerPoint by clicking Open on the File menu.

L) Look at the audience, not at the slides, whenever possible. If using a laser pointer, don’t move it too fast. For example, if circ ling a number on the slide, do it slowly. Never point the laser at the audience. Black out the screen (use “B” on the keyboard) after the point has been made, to put the focus on you. Press the key again to continue your presentation.

M) You can use the shortcut command [Ctrl]P to access the Pen tool during a slide show. Click with your mouse and drag to use the Pen tool to draw during your slide show. To erase everything you’ve drawn, press the E key. To turn off the Pen tool, press [Esc] once.


N) Master Slide Set-Up: The “master slide” will allow you to make changes that are reflected on every slide in your presentation. You can change fonts, colors, backgrounds, headers, and footers at the “master slide” level. First, go to the “View” menu. Pull down the “Master” menu. Select the “slide master” menu. You may now make changes at this level that meet your presentation needs.

1. The ways in which academic and business presentations are made have been changed by Microsoft PowerPoint.

2. When making the PowerPoint, the wording of the text should not be complicated.

3. In each slide, the font styles for the title and the text should contrast with each other.

4. A more formal situation is capitalizing the first letter of the first word.

5. Centering bulleted lists or text can not help to read.

6. Sound effects should be used as less frequently as possible.

7. When importing pictures, make sure that they are smaller than two megabytes.

8. When making the presentation, you should look at the audience as possible as you can.

9. Pressing the E key can help you to erase everything you&39;ve drawn.

10. In order to meet your presentation needs, you can make changes at the “slide master” level.



In order to ensure optimal productivity without increasing your hours, you should do time
In order to ensure optimal productivity without increasing your hours, you should do time logging _______.



Passage 2There is nothing new about TV and fashion magazines giving girls unhealthy ideas
Passage 2

There is nothing new about TV and fashion magazines giving girls unhealthy ideas about how thin they need to be in order to be considered beautiful. What is _1_ is the method psychologists at the University of Texas have come up with to keep girls from developing eating disorders. Their main weapon against superskinny (role) models: a brand of civil disobedience _2_ “body activism.” Since 2001,more than 1,000 high school and college students in the U.S. have participated in the Body Project, which works by getting girls to understand how they have been buying into the _3_ that you have to be thin to be happy or successful. After critiquing (评论)the so-called thin ideal by writing essays and role-playing with their peers, participants are _4_ to come up with and execute small,_5_acts. They include slipping notes saying “Love your body the way it is” into dieting books at stores like Borders and writing letters to Mattel, makers of the impossibly _6_ Barbie doll. According to a study in the latest issue of the Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, the risk of developing eating disorders was reduced 61% among Body Project participants. And they continued to exhibit _7_ body-image attitudes as long as three years after completing the program, which consists of four one-hour _8_. Such lasting effects may be due to girls’ realizing not only how they were being _9_ but also who was benefiting from the societal pressure to be thin.“These people who promote the perfect body really don’t care about you at all,” says Kelsey Hertel, a high school junior and Body Prqject veteran in Eugene, Oregon. “They _10_ make you feel like less of a person so you’ll buy their stuff and they’ll make money.”

A) nonviolent

B) notification

C) dubbed

D) sessions

E) purposefully

F) surprising

G) expired

H) directed

I) positive

J) casually

K) notion

L) proportioned

M) ambiguous

N) influenced

O) entities




For as long as humans have raised crops as a source of food and other products, insects ha
For as long as humans have raised crops as a source of food and other products, insects have damaged them. Between 1870 and 1880, locusts ate millions of dollars' worth of crops in the Mississippi Valley. Today in the United States the cotton boll weevil damages about 300 million dollars' worth of crops each year. Additional millions are lost each year to the appetites of other plant-eating insects. Some of these are corn borers, gypsy moths, potato beetles, and Japanese beetles. In modern times, many powerful insecticides(杀虫剂) have been used in an attempt to destroy insects that damage crops and trees. Some kinds of insecticides, when carefully used, have worked well. Yet the same insecticides have caused some unexpected problems. In one large area, an insecticide was used against Japanese beetles, which eat almost any kind of flower or leaf. Shortly afterward, the number of corn borers almost doubled. As intended, the insecticide had killed many Japanese beetles. But it had killed many of the insect enemies of the corn borer as well. In another case, an insecticide was used in Louisiana to kill the troublesome fire ant. The insecticide did not kill many fire ants. It did kill several small animals. It also killed some insect enemies of the sugarcane borer, a much more destructive pest than the fire ants. As a result, the number of sugarcane borers increased and severely damaged the sugarcane crop. To be sure that one insect pest will not be traded for another when an insecticide is used, scientists must perform careful experiments and do wide research. The experiments and research provide knowledge of the possible hazards an insecticide may bring to plant and animal communities. Without such knowledge, we have found that nature sometimes responds to insecticides in unexpected ways. An insecticide was used in Louisiana to kill the troublesome______.

A.corn borer

B.Japanese beetle

C.gypsy moth

D.fire ant

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